There was a treatment center at the outside of Pergamum Acropolis which was established on 4th century BC on the name of health god Asclepius. Advanced architectural layout, treatment methods had a reputation as being the most important healing center in western Anatolia.
Surviving ruins of Asklepion belongs to arrangements of 2nd century under the reign of Hadrian. Asklepion indicates that distinction of being the sanctuary since early years. However, its development starts from the 4th century BC.
Entry to the Sanctuary called the Via Tecta was provided with a sacred way which was 1 km long, covered, and the last part of the road was colonnaded. Monumental entrance at the end of the road (propylene), the right of the library entrance hall, on the left side of the entrance, a temple which dedicated Zeus Asclepius is located.
A courtyard of ceremony is located after monumental entrance. The courtyard on the north, south and west directions are surrounded with colonnaded galleries. 3,500-seat theatre adjacent to the northwest corner, the gallery expanded westward in the west gallery, a banquet hall on the south and in the southern corner, the latrines (toilet) exist. Sub-circular structure on the southeast corner of the courtyard, called the treatment building is located.
Holy water sources at the west side of large courtyard, a temple of early period and foundation remains of incubation rooms are located.
We learn about methods of treatment at the health center, Asklepion from famous spokesman of antiquity Aelius Aristides. Aristides had a cure in Asklepion and explained the treatment methods in his book “Hieroi Logoi".
Diseases have been tried to be treated with various methods such as putting patients to sleep in sleep rooms, sound of water, mud cure, healing water, cupping, hunger and satiety cures, therapy and music concerts. Pergamon, one of the most important health cities of the ancient world, is also the hometown of Physician Galenos, known as the father of pharmacy. Galenos undertook the care of gladiators and Roman kings here and made important determinations in the field of pharmacology. The Sanctuary of Asklepion, during the Roman period, having a developed a complex scheme of architecture and design, both treatment methods against diseases, here serving physicians, Galen of Pergamum through other famous physicians who developed the curative and healing methods in terms of Epidaurus and Costa contemporaries with other treatment centers.