Sardes was founded by a king named Meles in the Hermos/Gediz basin, on the banks of the Pactolus/Sart Stream and on the northern slopes of the hills to the west of Mount Tmolus/Bozdağı. The city of Sardes, which was the capital of the Lydian Kingdom, became a Persian satrapy center after the Persians put an end to the Lydian Kingdom in the 6th century BC. It became an important episcopacy center during the Byzantine Period, which preserved its importance in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods. Bath-Gymnasium Complex; The palaestra (square courtyard) surrounded by columns covering the eastern half of the bath-gymnasium complex was used for sports events, and the vaulted halls to the west of this place were used as baths. The two-story and columned space that provides the transition from the palaestra to the bath section is called the marble courtyard.
The Temple of Artemis; The temple, which was started to be built in the Hellenistic Period, was probably located in the sanctuary of an ancient Cybele cult. It was originally made for Artemis. In later periods, the cella of the temple (the part where the god and goddess statues are located) was divided into four parts. In these sections, statue heads of Artemis, Zeus Polieus, Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, and his wife Faustina were found. The temple, which was destroyed in the earthquake in 17 AD, was rebuilt according to the old plan during the reign of Emperor Tiberius. A chapel was added to the southeast corner of the temple in the 4th century A.D. Sardes, the capital of the Lydian State, is the place where money was first printed.